Blue Giant Dock Levelers

The coolest and least luminous stars referred to as blue giants are on the horizontal branch, intermediate-mass stars that have passed through a red giant phase and are now burning helium in their cores. Depending on mass and chemical composition these stars gradually move bluewards until they exhaust the helium in their cores and then they return redwards to the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). The RR Lyrae variable stars, usually with spectral types of A, lie across the middle of the horizontal branch. Horizontal-branch stars hotter than the RR Lyrae gap are generally considered to be blue giants, and sometimes the RR Lyrae stars themselves are called blue giants despite some of them being F class. The hottest stars, blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars, are called extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars and can be hotter than main-sequence stars of the same luminosity. In these cases they are called blue subdwarf (sdB) stars rather than blue giants, named for their position to the left of the main sequence on the HR diagram rather than for their increased luminosity and temperature compared to when they were themselves main-sequence stars.